How can you tell if liquid at the bottom of a container is the same consistency as at the top?

- Nuclear Physics: Exploring the Heart of Matter.
- A Primer for Sampling Solids, Liquids, and Gases?
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How does a pellet manufacturer know if the pellets are consistently the same size? How does a chemical manufacturer know if the percent purity in a sample is representative of the whole batch?

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Statisticians are well trained in sampling techniques if the sample is well defined. Examples of such samples include industrial parts in manufacturing, invoices in business processes, and people in surveys. However, what if the sampling unit isn't well defined? What if you are sampling bulk material such as a pile of coal?

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Notion of Sampling Integrity. Chapter 8. Peculiarities about the Sampling of Precious Metals. Pitard , Pierre M.

### Error 1: Fundamental variation

A sample is not just any part of the lot: its positioning, delimitation, and extraction must respect certain rules that the theory of sampling intends to establish. Sampling is often carried out by progressive stages: a primary sample is extracted from the lot, then a secondary sample is extracted from the primary sample, and so on.

Sampling or Samples are used to estimate the content of various constituents of interest present in the lot. Mass Quantity of matter in an object as measured in its relation to inertia, determined by dividing the weight of the object by the acceleration due to gravity.

### A primer for sampling solids, liquids and gases : based on the seven sampling errors of Pierre Gy

From a practical standpoint, the mass is a measure of the quantity of matter present in an object in terms of its heaviness Composite Sample A sample made by the reunion of several distinct subsamples. Composite samples are often prepared when it is not economically feasible to analyze a large quantity of individual samples. Circumstantial Property A property depending on the sampling problem itself on which one has no control. It is also a secondary property eg, accuracy is a circumstantial property.

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Comminution A crushing, grinding, or pulverizing stage that diminishes the fragment size d of a lot, sample, or increment. Component An elementary part or a constituent that can be separated and As far as sampling is concerned, a lot L is completely defined by the finite set of all particles or groups of particles of critical content am and weight Mm.

The mean of this error is most of the time different from zero which makes it an important source of sampling bias. The extraction is said to be correct if and only if the rule of the center of gravity is respected; all particles Exact Selection — A selection, the error of which is identically zero, implies that the mean and the variance of an exact selection are both equal to zero.

## Sampling for Analytical Purposes - Pierre Gy - Google книги

Therefore, an exact selection is characterized by a perfectly reproducible and unbiased mean. An exact selection is an inaccessible limit. Extrapolation — Empirical calculation made from values of one or several We shall also differentiate analytical and preparation errors from sampling errors. Estimate — The result a's obtained from the analysis of a sample for a given constituent of interest is an estimate of the true unknown content as of the sample for the same consituent.