We also augment the dynamics of helicopters to achieve handling qualities considered suitable for minimally trained pilots .
Systems and Organizational Cybernetics
We evaluate our new control approaches by performing human-in-the-loop experiments in fixed- and motion-base simulators. In these experiments, pilots with limited flight experience are instructed to perform specific closed-loop control tasks. From the collected data we can verify how haptic support and control augmentation can make helicopters easier to operate and how the required amount of training can be reduced. The knowledge obtained from these experiments brings us a step closer to making Personal Aerial Vehicles PAVs a feasible transportation option. We have designed and tested a new variable Force-Stiffness Haptic Feedback for teaching non expert pilots how to perform a 1 Degree of Freedom DoF disturbance rejection task with a control-loaded sidestick .
The variable Force-Stiffness Haptic Feedback is based on two design parameters:. By modifying these two parameters the student pilots are brought from an automated system to a fully manual system. In this way, student pilots can gradually learn how to perform the task without any haptic aid. The training method was tested in a human-in-the-loop experiment which showed that participants quickly achieved similar performance after the haptic aid was removed, thus indicating that they had indeed learned to control the vehicle.
We are now planning new experiments in which we will apply the same approach for a task with more DoF. So, for example, the program device changing value of adjustable parameter can be built in the described regulator of a room temperature.
Towards an anarchist cybernetics: Stafford Beer, self-organisation and radical social movements
Function of simple regulation outgrows here in function of tracing value program-changeable parameter. In more difficult watching systems the problem consists in maintenance probably more exact some fixed functional dependence between assemblage of parameters spontaneously varying and the set assemblage of adjustable parameters.
For example, there is the system, continuously accompanying as a projector beam the plane maneuvering arbitrarily.
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In so-called systems of optimum control a main objective is maintenance maximum or minimum values of some function from two groups of the parameters, named criterion of optimum control. Parameters of the first group external conditions vary irrespective of system, parameters of the second group are regulated, i.
The elementary example of optimum control is given again by a problem of regulation of temperature of room air under an additional condition of the account of changes of its humidity. The size of temperature of air, giving sensation of the greatest comfort, depends on its humidity. If humidity varies all time, and the system can operate only temperature change it is natural as the purpose of control to set the task of maintenance of temperature which would give sensation of the greatest comfort. It also will be an optimum control problem.
Optimum control systems are great importance in problems of management of economy. If there is not enough of data for maintenance of satisfactory quality of system, it is possible to build the so-called adaptive regulators accumulate the missing information during work of system and using it for improvement of quality of the work.
Two of them - the mathematical analysis and physical experiment are widely applied in other sciences. The essence of the first method consists in the description of studied object within the limits of this or that mathematical apparatus for example, in the form of system of the equations and the subsequent extraction of various consequences of this description by mathematical deduction for example, by the decision of corresponding system of the equations.
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The essence of the second method consists in carrying out of various experiments either with object, or with its real physical model. One of the major achievements of cybernetics is working out and wide use of a new method of the research which has received the name of computing machine experiment, or mathematical modeling. Its sense consists that experiments are made not with real physical model of studied object, but with its mathematical description realized in the computer.
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Huge speed of modern computers frequently allows to model processes in faster rate, than they occur actually. In this article, we attempt to advance the discussion by addressing ideas that we think have not been adequately emphasized thus far. Specifically proposed are ideas about conditions that might facilitate the emergence of consciously pragmatic strategy informed by the kind of systemic wisdom that delicately balances natural systems without the benefit of human planning. It is argued that a shift in the personal habits of knowing and acting that typically organize individual human experience is required.
After attempting to specify what this shift might involve, implications of these ideas for the practice of family therapy and for human action in general are discussed. Baecker D.
Edition echoraum, Vienna, Constructivist Foundations 5 2 : In Vol. Review of Neocybernetics and Narrative by Bruce Clarke. Constructivist Foundations 10 2 : — If modern science in its rational understanding considers its subjects to be objects sitting still while being observed, then indeed second-order cybernetics is different. The classical formulation of the object of ethics refers to a knowledge of the rules of the adaptation of the human species to their natural environments, to normative expectations supposed in the others and to the biographical evolution of the self.
Accordingly, a doctrine of the duties was edified on three pillars, embracing a reference to the duties towards nature, towards the others and towards oneself. The ethical discussions consisted chiefly in the investigation of the adequacy of the subordinate goals to the final ends of the human action or in the treatment of the metaphysical questions related to free will or determinism, the opposition of the intentionality of the voluntary conduct of man to the mechanical or quasi-mechanical responses of the inferior organisms or machines. Initially, second-order cybernetics intended an epistemological discussion of recursive operations in non-trivial machines, which were able to include in their evolving states their own self-awareness in observations.