Manual Conquering Character: The Characterization of Joshua in Joshua 1-11

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But the key term that describes the content would be dispersion or captivities since this book describes the historical demise that lead to the loss of the monarchies and the dispersion of the two kingdoms. Then Jeroboam drove Israel away from following the Lord, and made them commit a great sin. So Israel was carried away into exile from their own land to Assyria until this day. Elijah naturally anticipates the forerunner of Christ in John the Baptist Matt.

Jensen compares and summarizes their ministry:. Elijah is noted for great public acts, while Elisha is distinguished by the large number of miracles he performed, many of them for individual needs. Elijah was like John the Baptist, thundering the message of repentance for sin. Elisha followed this up by going about, as Christ did, doing deeds of kindness, and by doing miracles attesting that the words of the prophets were from God. Second Kings also naturally falls into two section.

Joshua 1 Keil and Delitzsch OT Commentary

The first section, The Divided Kingdom , selectively traces the reign of the kings of both nations until the dispersion of the Northern Kingdom of Israel. The second section, The Surviving Kingdom of Judah , then traces the reign of the surviving kings of the Southern Kingdom of Judah. Note carefully the instructive contrasts Ryrie demonstrates for us in the content of 1 and 2 Kings. Chronicles originally both 1 and 2 Chronicles were one book does not identify the author, but Jewish tradition has traditionally ascribed the book to Ezra. The consistency of style throughout the book indicates that though several sources were used in compiling the book, one editor shaped the final product.

Conquering Character

The various sources include the prophetic records by Samuel 1 Chron. The content suggests a priestly authorship because of the strong focus on the temple, the priesthood, and the theocratic line of David and the Southern Kingdom of Judah. That Ezra is the compiler of the book is also supported by the common themes of Ezra and Chronicles as the building and dedication of the temple. Though the books of 1 and 2 Chronicles cover the same period of Jewish history, the perspective is very different. So while the content is similar, it is not a mere repetition, but more of a spiritual editorial of the history of the people of Israel.

Originally one book with 2 Chronicles until B. When producing the Septuagint, the translators divided Chronicles into two sections. First Chronicles begins with an outline of history from Adam through the death of King Saul. The rest of the book is about the reign of King David. The genealogies point out that the Davidic promises had their source in those pledged to Abraham that He would make him the father of a great nation, one through which He would bless the nations. The main theme is that God is faithful to His covenant. Chronicles emphasizes the role of the Law, the priesthood, and the temple.

This book also taught that the past was pregnant with lessons for their present. Apostasy, idolatry, intermarriage with Gentiles, and lack of unity were the reasons for their recent ruin. It is significant that after the Exile, Israel never again worshiped foreign gods.

Chapter As mentioned, it is a book about David, though others that were prominent in 1 Samuel are also important here like Nathan, Bathsheba, and Uriah. What was said in 1 and 2 Samuel regarding David as a type of Christ would naturally be prominent here also. As previously mentioned, 1 and 2 Chronicles were originally one book.

As with 1 Chronicles, it does not state who wrote it, but Jewish tradition, which identifies the author as Ezra, and the consistency of viewpoint and style suggest it was probably the work of one person sometimes referred to by writers as the chronicler. In support of Ezra as the author are certain commonalties like the extensive lists, the Levites, and the temple.

Whoever he was, he had access to a number of official sources like: 1 the book of the kings of Israel and Judah ; ; ; 2 the book of the kings of Judah and Israel ; ; ; ; 3 the book of the kings of Israel ; ; 4 the annals of the book of the kings ; 5 the book Nathan, the prophecy of Ahijah, and the visions of Iddo ; 6 the history of Shemaiah ; 7 the annals of Iddo ; 8 the writings of the prophet Isaiah ; 9 the sayings of Hozai ; 10 the Laments ; and 11 the writings of David and his son Solomon But for all practical purposes, it ignores the Northern Kingdom because of apostasy and total absence of any godly kings who patterned their life after David.

By contrast, 2 Chronicles focuses on those kings who did walk after the lifestyle of David. Chapters trace the history of the Southern Kingdom of Judah to the final destruction of Jerusalem and the exile of the people to Babylon.

The Characterization of Joshua in Joshua 1-11

Therefore, it devotes extended sections to the lives of those kings who brought revival and reform to the nation like Asa, Jehoshaphat, Joash, Hezekiah, and Josiah. As mentioned, Chronicles goes over some of the same history as Samuel and Kings, but from a different perspective in order to emphasize certain things: In 1 Chronicles, David is the subject while in 2 Chronicles the house of David is central.

In Kings the history of the nation is given from the throne whereas in Chronicles it is given from the altar the temple. In Kings the palace is central, but in Chronicles the temple is prominent. Chronicles is more than simply an historical record. References to the House of God and the priest s occur often. You have acted foolishly in this.

Indeed, from now on you will surely have wars. The chapters covering the reforms of godly kings are key chapters in the way they illustrate the promise of See especially chapter 34 and the reforms under Josiah when the book of the Law was found, read, and obeyed. The throne of David has been destroyed, but the line of David remains. Murders, treachery, battles, and captivity all threaten the messianic line; but it remains clear and unbroken from Adam to Zerubbabel. The fulfillment in Christ can be seen in the genealogies of Matthew 1 and Luke 3. The temple which is so prominent in 2 Chronicles is a beautiful portrait of Christ see Matt.

Joshua 12:1-24, The List Of Conquered Kings

Though the book of Ezra does not name its author, Jewish tradition the Talmud ascribes it to Ezra along with Chronicles and Nehemiah. Modern scholarship often agrees that Ezra is the author and that he wrote these using various documents e. The fact that Ezra is the principal character of the major sections of Ezra lends further support to his authorship.

He takes part in the events described in chapters and also in chapters of Nehemiah. In both cases, the passages are written in the first person. Tradition holds that Ezra was the founder of the Great Synagogue where the canon of Old Testament scripture was settled. Another tradition says that he collected the biblical books into a unit and that he originated the synagogue form of worship.

Although some date the book around B. Ezra probably finished the book between when the events of took place and , when Nehemiah arrived in Jerusalem. Further, Josephus Against Apion 1. But not all agree. The lists in Ezra 2 and Nehemiah 7 are basically the same. This would militate against the idea that the two books were originally one, for it would seem strange to repeat the same list in one volume.

The name Ezra for the title of the first work comes from the major person in the second half of the book, who also appears in chapters 8 and 12 of the Book of Nehemiah. From an historical standpoint, Ezra continues the narrative where 2 Chronicles ends and traces the history of the return of the Jews from exile in Babylon and the rebuilding of the temple. From a spiritual and doctrinal standpoint, Ezra demonstrates how God fulfilled His promise to return His people to the land of promise after seventy years of exile as announced by the prophets.

It begins with the decree of Cyrus, king of Persia, which allowed a remnant of the people to return. The people enthusiastically began rebuilding the temple, but were delayed for 18 years by enemies from the north. Finally a decree from Darius let them finish see Ezra The theme can be summarized as the spiritual, moral, and social restoration of the Remnant who returned under the leadership of Zerubbabel and Ezra.

Key chapters would include 1 the decree of Cyrus allowing the remnant to return, chapter 1 , 2 the foundation of the temple completed, chapter 3 , 3 the completion and dedication of the temple and the keeping of the Passover, chapter 6 , 4 the return under Ezra and his prayer, chapters Cyrus Persian king who decreed to allow the return , Ezra priest and scribe , Jeshua the high priest , and Zerubbabel.

Ezra divides into two sections: the earlier return under Zerubbabel, the restoration of the temple and the later return under Ezra, the reformation of the people Or it may be divided:. On the other hand, many scholars believe that Nehemiah authored the book that bears his name since much of the book is presented as a first-person account of the circumstances surrounding his return to Jerusalem chaps.

The historical setting is simply that of the last half of the ancient Hebrew book of Ezra-Nehemiah which means it was written about B.


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  • Though originally one book, the last half of that book draws its name from the prominence of Nehemiah, contemporary of Ezra and cupbearer to the king of Persia. The book of Nehemiah continues the history of the Jews who returned from exile. Nehemiah gave up his position as cupbearer to Artaxerxes, the Persian king, to become governor of Jerusalem and lead the people in repairing the city walls. Ezra and Nehemiah were contemporaries see Neh.

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    While Ezra was a priest and involved more with the religious restoration of returning Remnant, Nehemiah was a layman and served in a political capacity as governor in the rebuilding of the walls of Jerusalem. Nehemiah was also written to show the obvious hand of God in the establishment of His people in their homeland in the years after their exile. Under the leadership of Nehemiah, they accomplished in fifty-two days what had not been done in the ninety-four years since the first return under Zerubbabel.

    By obedient faith they were able to overcome what appeared to be insurmountable opposition. Nehemiah surely portrays Christ in willingness to leave his high position in order to bring about His work of restoration. Like Ezra, Nehemiah also falls into two specific issues: 1 the rebuilding of the walls and the restoration of the people The book gives no hint of who wrote it. But whoever it was knew the Persian culture well. The account has all the marks of a person who was there for he described the events as an eyewitness.