Layer's alpha channel : the mask is initialized according to the content of layer Alpha channel. If the layer still contains transparency it's copied in the mask. Transfer layer's alpha channel : Does the same thing as the previous option, except that it also resets the layer's alpha channel to full opacity. Selection : the mask is initialized according to pixel values found in the selection.
Grayscale copy of layer : the mask is initialized according to pixel values of the layer.
Image Structure | Luc Florack | Springer
Channel : The layer mask is initialized with a selection mask you have created before, stored in the Channel dialog. Invert mask : This checkbox allows you to invert : black turns to white and white turns to black. When the mask is created it appears as a thumbnail right to the layer thumbnail. By clicking alternatively on the layer and mask thumbnail you can enable one or other.
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The active item has a white border which is not well visible around a white mask. That's an important point.
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Always keep the Layers Dialog prominently when working with masks, because you can't see, looking at the canvas, which of the layer or the mask is active. If you press Ctrl the border is red and the result is equivalent to the Disable Layer Mask command. To return to normal view redo last operation. These options are for greater convenience in your work. This image has a background layer with a flower and another blue one, fully opaque. A white layer mask has been added to the blue layer.
In the image window, the blue layer remains visible because a white mask makes layer pixels visible. The layer mask is active. You paint with black color, which makes the layer transparent: the underlying layer becomes visible. Image Structure Related Dialogs. Layers Dialog. Activating the dialog. Using the Layer dialog. Overview Every layer appears in the dialog in the form of a thumbnail.
Layer attributes Every layer is shown in the list along with its attributes:. Mode The layer mode determines how the layer interacts with the other layers. Opacity By moving the slider you give more or less opacity to the layer. Lock You have three possibilities: Lock pixels : When the button is pressed down, you cannot use any brush-based tool Paintbrush, Pencil, Eraser etc. Lock pixels. Lock position and size. Lock Alpha channel.
Example for Locking Alpha Channel The active layer has three horizontal, opaque, green stripes on a transparent background. Tip If a layer name in the Layer Dialog is in bold, then this layer has no Alpha channel. New Layer Here you can create a new layer. New Layer Group Here you can create a new layer group. Raise layer Here you can move the layer up a level in the list.
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Lower layer Here you can move the layer down a level in the list. Tip To move a layer at the bottom of the list, it may first be necessary to add a transparency channel also called Alpha channel to the Background layer.
Layer masks. They did not incorporate downtown areas into the design.
A study that did incorporate both downtown areas and shopping centers Bearden examined decisions at the individual store levels richer than at the shopping area level. It did confirm the importance of image in discriminating between patrons of a downtown department store and those of shopping center department stores. The research on retail patronage decisions at the shopping area level suggests that the gravity variables of size and distance and the affective variable of image can explain consumer shopping behavior with respect to downtown areas and shopping centers.
This set of variables provides a framework then for determining the focus of efforts to revitalize downtown areas as major retail centers within communities. Given the nature of the gravity variables versus the image variable, it would seem that the latter offers the most practical focus for downtown revitalization efforts.
Size and, especially, distance are minimally, if at all, controllable.www.compagnieasphalte.com/images/fawawoto/66.php
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Image, on the other hand, is largely a result of marketing efforts and the physical nature of a shopping area within given geographic boundaries. The proper manipulation of the image of downtown retail areas can enhance the competitiveness of these areas as major shopping areas. Therefore, the purposes of this paper are:. To investigate the nature of consumer images of shopping areas by determining the key underlying dimensions of image structure;.
To determine if the structure employed by consumers to form shopping area image is consistent between downtown areas and shopping centers. The second purpose is particularly important. If the structure of consumer image for downtown areas is unique then the basis for the development of image-oriented marketing strategies must differ from that of shopping centers. On the other hand, if they are similar, then downtown areas will have a common structure from which to develop image-based competitive strategies.
The possibility that downtown areas differ from shopping centers in terms of image structure would seem significant. Shopping centers are developed as integrated, self-contained shopping areas. They are typically managed by a single firm who is responsible for the promotion of an overall center. Downtown areas are much older. An evolutionary process characterizes the manner in which many of then have reached their present state.
To address the issues relating to consumer images of shopping areas a study was conducted in the Madison, Wisconsin SMSA which contains approximately , people. Five major intraurban shopping areas exist in the SMSA, four regional shopping centers and a downtown area. A probability sample of 2, households was chosen systematically from the telephone directory. Identical five-page self-administered questionnaires were mailed to sample households.
A total of questionnaires were returned for a response rate of While no direct assessment of nonresponse error was made, a comparison of the demographic profile of sample households to that of the total population suggested that older, lower-income households, a segment of the market not typically pursued by major shopping areas, were under-represented in the sample. Retail shopping area image is a composite of beliefs held by a consumer on a number of dimensions.
Several authors have investigated the dimensions used by consumers to form images at the retail level. Bearden identified seven specific salient attributes of stores: price level; quality of merchandise; selection; atmosphere; location; parking facilities, and friendliness of sales people. Based on these studies and discussions with shopping center managers, a total of 16 items were generated to represent the domain of shopping area image.
The sixteen items were incorporated into a measure of consumer perceptions of each shopping area. Each item was measured on a 5-point modified semantic differential rating scale. The semantic differential format was used because it is easy to self-administer, assumes minimum verbal skills on the part of the respondents, is relatively reliable, and has been common in past research on image. See Table 1 for a listing of the 16 items and descriptions of the anchor points for each scale.
Using this format respondents were asked to evaluate each of the five shopping areas with which they were familiar.
Country of origin, brand image perception, and brand image structure
In order to determine the underlying dimensions of the structure of shopping area image responses to the image measure were factor analyzed using principal components analysis and varimax rotation for each shopping area. In order to assess the stability of image structure across downtown areas and shopping centers a factor congruency test Harman , pp. The result of a factor congruency test is a congruency coefficient which relates each factor of one factor matrix to each factor of another matrix.
Congruency coefficients have properties similar to those of correlation coefficients. Corresponding factors are those with coefficients approaching one, while noncorresponding factors are indicated with small coefficients. Thus, stability across two factor matrices is indicated by a matrix of congruency coefficients with the diagonal values close to one and off-diagonal values that ideally approach zero.
Further insights into the nature of the image of downtown shopping centers were obtained by forming component scores of image based on the factor analysis results. Scores were computed by summing the values of items loading on the relevant factor. As a test of criterion-related validity and a basis for assessing the relative impact of each image component on global evaluations of shopping areas, these scores were regressed in stepwise fashion on a measure of general evaluative feeling 5-point scale ranging from "poor" to "excellent" for each shopping area.
Phillip J. Kellman and Mary K. Kaiser J. A 12 3 You do not have subscription access to this journal. Citation lists with outbound citation links are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution. Cited by links are available to subscribers only.
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