They all utilize l -arginine and molecular oxygen as substrates and require the cofactors reduced nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide phosphate NADPH , flavin adenine dinucleotide FAD , flavin mononucleotide FMN , and 6 R - 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin BH 4. All NOS bind calmodulin and contain haem.
Its functions include synaptic plasticity in the central nervous system CNS , central regulation of blood pressure, smooth muscle relaxation, and vasodilatation via peripheral nitrergic nerves. Nitrergic nerves are of particular importance in the relaxation of corpus cavernosum and penile erection. Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors sildenafil, vardenafil, and tadalafil require at least a residual nNOS activity for their action.
Inducible NOS contributes to the pathophysiology of inflammatory diseases and septic shock.
It keeps blood vessels dilated, controls blood pressure, and has numerous other vasoprotective and anti-atherosclerotic effects. Many cardiovascular risk factors lead to oxidative stress, eNOS uncoupling, and endothelial dysfunction in the vasculature. Pharmacologically, vascular oxidative stress can be reduced and eNOS functionality restored with renin- and angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitors, with angiotensin receptor blockers, and with statins.
Nitric oxide NO is an unorthodox messenger molecule, which has numerous molecular targets.
Endothelial Plasticity: Shifting Phenotypes through Force Feedback
NO controls servoregulatory functions such as neurotransmission 1 , 2 or vascular tone 3 , 4 by stimulating NO-sensitive guanylyl cyclase , regulates gene transcription 5 , 6 and mRNA translation e. This compound can cause oxidative damage, nitration, and S-nitrosylation of biomolecules including proteins, lipids, and DNA.
This review will cover all three isoforms. Important functions of the different NOS isoforms. It has been implicated in synaptic plasticity i. These phenomena are involved in learning and memory formation. In the peripheral nervous system PNS , neuronal NOS-derived NO acts as an atypical neurotransmitter, which mediates relaxing components of gut peristalsis, vasodilation, and penile erection. Middle panel Inducible NOS expression can be induced by cytokines and other agents in almost any cell type.
NO released towards the vascular lumen is a potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation and adhesion to the vascular wall. Besides protection from thrombosis, this also prevents the release of platelet-derived growth factors that stimulate smooth muscle proliferation and its production of matrix molecules. Endothelial NO also controls the expression of genes involved in atherogenesis.
NO decreases the expression of chemoattractant protein MCP-1 and of a number of surface adhesion molecules, thereby preventing leucocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium and leucocyte migration into the vascular wall. This offers protection against early phases of atherogenesis. Also the decreased endothelial permeability, the reduced influx of lipoproteins into the vascular wall and the inhibition of low-density lipoprotein oxidation may contribute to the anti-atherogenic properties of endothelial NOS-derived NO. Finally, NO has been shown to inhibit DNA synthesis, mitogenesis, and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells as well as smooth muscle cell migration, thereby protecting against a later phase of atherogenesis.
All isoforms of NOS utilize l -arginine as the substrate, and molecular oxygen and reduced nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide phosphate NADPH as co-substrates.
- Food and the City in Europe since 1800.
- The Vascular Endothelium II | Salvador Moncada | Springer.
- The Butterfly Effect.
- Nfpa 13 Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, 1996.
Sequences located near the cysteine ligand of the haem are also apparently involved in l -arginine and BH 4 binding. When calmodulin affinity to NOS increases, it facilitates the flow of electrons from NADPH in the reductase domain to the haem in the oxygenase domain. Structure and catalytic mechanisms of functional NOS.
Figure 2 from Vascular endothelium in cancer - Semantic Scholar
For clarity, the flow of electrons is only shown from the reductase domain of one monomer to the oxygenase domain of the other monomer. This site is of major importance for the binding of BH 4 and l -arginine. The most important physiological signalling pathway stimulated by NO is the activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase and the generation of cyclic GMP.
Brain nNOS is found in particulate and soluble forms in cells and the differential subcellular localization of nNOS may contribute to its diverse functions. These interactions determine the subcellular distribution and the activity of the enzyme. In the past years, an increasing number of reports have confirmed the significance of nNOS in a variety of synaptic signalling events.
Neuronal NOS has been implicated in modulating physiological functions such as learning, memory, and neurogenesis. Retrograde communication across synaptic junctions is presumed to be involved in memory formation, and there is evidence that inhibitors of NOS impair learning and produce amnesia in animal models.
Blockade of nNOS activity in the medulla and hypothalamus causes systemic hypertension. In the periphery, many smooth muscle tissues are innervated by nitrergic nerves , i. Nitric oxide produced by nNOS in nitrergic nerves can be viewed as an unusual neurotransmitter that stimulates NO-sensitive guanylyl cyclase in its effector cells, thereby decreasing the tone of various types of smooth muscle including blood vessels.
S -Methyl- l -thiocitrulline reduces basal blood flow in the human forearm and in the coronary circulation. This effect can be reversed by l -arginine. The predominant isoform in the corpus cavernosum is isoform 5. Abnormal NO signalling is likely to contribute to a variety of neurodegenerative pathologies such as excitotoxicity following stroke, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's diseases. High levels of NO can also produce energy depletion, due to inhibition of mitochondrial respiration and inhibition of glycolysis.
Some disturbances of smooth muscle tone within the gastrointestinal tract e.
Inducible NOS is not usually expressed in cells, but its expression can be induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide, cytokines, and other agents. Inducible NOS, when induced in macrophages, produces large amounts of NO, which represent a major cytotoxic principle of those cells. These include iron—sulfur cluster-dependent enzymes complexes I and II involved in mitochondrial electron transport, ribonucleotide reductase the rate-limiting enzyme in DNA replication , and cis -aconitase a key enzyme in the citric acid cycle. Interestingly, non-immune cells can also be induced with cytokines to release amounts of NO large enough to affect the neighbouring cells.
Cytokine-activated endothelial cells, for example, have been shown to lyse tumour cells, 53 and induced hepatocytes can use NO to kill malaria sporozoites. The high levels of NO produced by activated macrophages and probably neutrophils and other cells may not only be toxic to undesired microbes, parasites, or tumour cells, but—when released at the wrong site—may also harm healthy cells.
The large majority of inflammatory and autoimmune lesions are characterized by an abundance of activated macrophages and neutrophils.
Inflammatory neurodegeneration contributes to a number of brain pathologies. Mechanisms by which activated microglia and astrocytes kill neurons have been identified in cell culture. This can result in glutamate release and excitotoxicity 57 , 58 see the Role of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in pathophysiology section on nNOS and excitotoxicity.
This condition is characterized by massive arteriolar vasodilatation, hypotension, and microvascular damage. Bacterial endotoxins usually initiate the symptoms. However, the fall in blood pressure is predominantly due to excess NO production by iNOS induced in the vascular wall. However, the isozyme has also been detected in cardiac myocytes, platelets, certain neurons of the brain, in syncytio-trophoblasts of the human placenta and in LLC-PK 1 kidney tubular epithelial cells.
For example, heat shock protein 90 hsp90 has been found associated with eNOS and serves as an allosteric modulator activating the enzyme 61 and promoting eNOS re coupling 62 , 63 see later in the text. The fraction of eNOS that is localized in caveolae 64 can interact with the caveolae coat protein, caveolin Caveolin-1 is a tonic inhibitor of eNOS activity. This concept has been proven genetically because blood vessels from caveolindeficient mice show enhanced endothelium-dependent relaxations. The best established such stimulus is fluid shear stress.
This activation is mediated by phosphorylation of the enzyme. Recent evidence using Akt1-deficient mice carrying knock-in mutations of the critical Akt1 phosphorylation site on eNOS has proven that kinase Akt1 is a critical regulator of eNOS function also in vivo. The phosphomimetic mutation SerAsp rendered the enzyme constitutively active, whereas the mutation SerAla reduced enzyme activity.
Vascular endothelium in cancer
Established functionally important phosphorylation sites in human endothelial NOS are Ser and Thr In resting endothelial cells, Ser is usually not phosphorylated. Phosphorylation is induced when the cells are exposed to oestrogens, vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF , insulin, bradykinin or fluid shear stress. The kinases responsible for phosphorylation green hexagons depend on the primary stimulus.
So far, Akt1 is the only kinase proven to regulate endothelial NOS function in vivo framed green hexagon.
Phosphorylation of the Ser residue increases the flux of electrons through the reductase domain and thus enzyme activity. The Thr residue of human endothelial NOS tends to be constitutively phosphorylated in endothelial cells. Thr is a negative regulatory site, and its phosphorylation is associated with a decreased electron flux and enzyme activity. Phosphorylation of Thr reduces endothelial NOS activity yellow block arrow.
The phosphatase that dephosphorylates Thr appears to be protein phosphatase1 PP1, black flag with black block arrow. Thr tends to be phosphorylated under non-stimulated conditions most probably by protein kinase C. Phosphorylation of Thr is likely to interfere with the binding of calmodulin to the calmodulin-binding domain. Substantially more calmodulin binds to eNOS when Thr is dephosphorylated. Phosphorylation of these residues is an intensively studied area and may have important consequences for enzyme activity as recently reviewed. Endothelial NOS appears to be a homeostatic regulator of numerous essential cardiovascular functions.
Endothelial NOS-derived NO dilates all types of blood vessels by stimulating soluble guanylyl cyclase and increasing cyclic GMP in smooth muscle cells. Endothelial NOS is also critical for adaptive vascular remodelling to chronic changes in flow. Endothelial NO controls the expression of genes involved in atherogenesis. Nitric oxide decreases the expression of chemoattractant protein MCP A disturbed integrity of the endothelial monolayer barrier can initiate proinflammatory events. Endothelium-derived NO prevents endothelial cell apoptosis induced by proinflammatory cytokines and proatherosclerotic factors including reactive oxygen species ROS and angiotensin II AT.
The suppression of apoptosis may also contribute to the antiinflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic effects of endothelium-derived NO. Furthermore, NO has been shown to inhibit DNA synthesis, mitogenesis, and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Therefore, NO also prevents a later step in atherogenesis, fibrous plaque formation. Endothelial NOS-derived NO plays a critical role in post-natal angiogenesis, mediating signals downstream of angiogenic factors.
Recent findings in eNOS-deficient mice point to a novel and previously unrecognized role of NO in foetal lung development and lung morphogenesis.
The lung phenotype of eNOS-deficient mice closely resembles alveolar capillary dysplasia in humans, a form of malignant pulmonary hypertension of the newborn that presents with defective lung vascular development and respiratory distress. Mice with a deleted eNOS gene show an impaired neovascularization. This was related to a defect in progenitor cell mobilization. In a model of hind-limb ischaemia in these mice, intravenous infusion of wild-type progenitor cells, but not bone marrow transplantation, can rescue the defective neovascularization.
This suggests that mobilization of progenitor cells from the bone marrow is impaired in eNOS-deficient mice. Indeed, matrix metalloproteinase-9, which is required for stem cell mobilization, was reduced in the bone marrow of eNOS-deficient mice. Thus, eNOS expressed by bone marrow stromal cells influences recruitment of stem and progenitor cells. Reduced systemic NO bioactivity seen in ischaemic heart disease may therefore contribute to impaired neovascularization.